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2nd Year English Notes
1. THE DYING SUN
Q. 1: How is it that star seldom finds another star near it?
Ans: A star seldom finds another star near it because there is a distance of millions of miles between the two stars. Moreover, space is immensely vast and each star is bound to travel in its own orbit.
Q. 2: What happened when, according to Sir James Jeans, a wandering star, wandering through space came near the sun?
Ans: When a wandering star came near the sun, it raised tides on the surface of the sun. These tides formed a high mountain on the surface of the sun that we can hardly imagine.
Q. 3: What happened when the wandering star came nearer and nearer?
Ans: When the wandering star came nearer and nearer the sun, the mountain on the surface of the sun rose higher and higher and was, finally, torn into pieces.
Q. 4: What are planets and how did they come into existence?
Ans: The planets are the broken parts of the sun. They came into existence due to tidal pull caused by some star on the surface of the sun.
Q. 5: Why is there no life on the stars?
Ans: There is no life on the stars because the stars are balls of fire and they have intense heat. Therefore, the stars are too hot for life to exist on them.
Q. 6: Write a note on the beginning of life on earth?
Ans: When the earth gradually became cooler and cooler. Life started in very simple organisms which had the ability to reproduce themselves before dying. In the end, it produced the most complicated organisms like a man who has feelings and ambitions.
Q. 7: Why is the universe so frightening?
Ans: The universe is so frightening because of immense stretches of time, extreme loneliness, and absence of life on other planets.
Q. 8: What should be the conditions necessary, for the kind of life we know to exist on other heavenly bodies? Do such conditions generally exist?
Ans: Life can exist only in some suitable physical condition like moderate temperature, air, and water. Such conditions do not exist on other heavenly bodies except the earth. Therefore, there is no life on other heavenly bodies.
Q. 9: How do the stars travel in the universe?
Ans: The stars travel in the universe either in groups or mostly they travel alone. They travel at a vast distance from one another
Q.10: What are the temperature belts?
Ans: The temperature belts are zones that surround each hot star at a certain distance. The temperature there is neither too hot nor too cold. Life can exist on such temperature belts.
2. USING THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Q. 1: How has the scientific method helped us in our fight against disease?
Ans: The scientific method has helped us in knowing the causes of diseases and their prevention. It has also enabled us to make life-saving drugs.
Q. 2: Write a note on the better sanitary conditions available in our cities today and compare them with what they were like a hundred years ago?
Ans: Today, our city streets are paved and well drained. They are cleaned regularly. Garbage and sewage is disposed of properly. A hundred years ago, the streets were unpaved and poorly drained. Household garbage and other refuse were thrown in the streets. So, today sanitary conditions are far better than a hundred years ago.
Q. 3: What are sanitary conditions like our villages today and how would you improve them?
Ans: Today, our villages are poorly drained, outdoor toilets are common and the streets are unpaved. We could improve them by warning people about better sanitation and its positive effect on their health.
Q. 4: How has scientific method helped us in the production and preservation of foods?
Ans: Through the scientific method, we get more production of food. Modern methods of selecting, grading and processing have helped us a lot in the preservation of food.
Q. 5: We are less fearful than our ancestors. What were our ancestors afraid of?
Ans: We are less fearful than our ancestors because we have left believing superstitions. Our ancestors were afraid of black cats, broken mirrors and the number 13.
Q. 6: How has the scientific method enabled us to get over the old fears?
Ans: Scientific method has made us reasonable. Now, we know there is a sound reason behind every happening. In this way, the scientific method has enabled us to get over the old fears.
Q. 7: What part did astrology play in the lives of men and women in the past? Give examples?
Ans: In the past, astrology played an important part in the lives of men and women. People used to consult astrologists before marriages and other important matters of life.
Q. 8: Describe some of the superstitions still current in our country. How do they affect the lives of those who believe in them?
Ans: Still some people believe in wearing charms and other superstitions like them. They affect the lives of those according to belief.
Q. 9: What were the survival chances two hundred years ago?
Ans: Two hundred years ago, seven out of eight babies died before reaching their first birthday.
Q. 10: What do we mean by the word attitude?
Ans: By attitude, we mean the way we feel and think towards an idea or an event.
Q.11: What is meant by superstitions?
Ans: Feelings which involve fears are called superstitions. Black cats, broken mirrors and number 13 are some common superstitions.
Q.12: How did thrifty housewives preserve food in the past?
Ans: Thrifty housewives preserved their home-grown vegetables and fruits by canning, pickling, or drying them for use during the cold weather. Meats were preserved by salting and drying or by freezing.
Q.13: How scientific method has improved our ways of life?
Ans: Scientific method has improved our ways of life by solving health problems, by increasing the production and preservation of food and by bringing positive changes in our attitude.
Q.14: What is the purpose of this lesson?
Ans: This lesson helps us to understand how the use of scientific method has improved living conditions and changed our attitude.
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